Civil and Political Rights
Human Right of First Generation
Human rights had found their origin and development as far back in the period of Greeks, French and Romans. They were generated mostly in Greek city State in Ancient times. They were concreted in the form of Magna Carta in United Kingdom in middle age of their history, thereafter in the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. In the modern times they have been incorporated in the Constitution of many States; in international covenant on civil and political Rights, in the European Conventions on Human Rights and American and African Instruments.
Civil rights or liberties are referred to those rights which are related to the protection of the right to life and personal liberty. they are essential for a person so that he may live a dignified life. Such rights include right to life, liberty and security of persons, right to privacy, home and correspondence, right to own property, freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, freedom of though, conscience and religion and freedom of movement.
Political rights may be referred to those rights which allow a person to participate in the government of a State. Thus, right to vote, right to be elected at genuine periodic elections, right to take part in the conduct of public affair, directly or through chosen representatives are instances of political rights.
The right are the rights of first generation which derive primarily from the 17th and 18th century reformist theories which are associated with the English, American and French revolutions.