Economic Social and Cultural Rights
Human Rights of Second Generation
The civil and Political Rights originated in the American and French Revolution and Social Rights and their origin in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The International Labour Organisaton developed many international labor standards in the form of conventions and recommendations coupled with effective system of supervision and investigation of complaints. Economic, social and cultural rights (also called ‘freedom to’) are related the guarantee of minimum necessities of the life to human beings. In the absence adequate food, clothing, housing and adequate standard of living and freedom from hunger, right to work, right to social security, right to physical and mental health and right to education are included in this category of rights these rights are included in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
These rights sometimes called positive rights require active intervention, not abstentions on the part of States. These rights are therefore counterpoint to the firs generation of civil and political rights, with human rights conceived more in positive right to than negative freedom from terms.
Thus both the categories of rights are equally important and where civil and political rights do not exist, there cannot be full realization of economic, social and cultural rights and vice versa. the relationship of the two categories of rights was recognized by the international Human Rights Conference held in 1968 which declared in the final proclamation that– “since human rights and fundamental rights without the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights is impossible.” The General Assembly in 1977 reiterated that all human rights and fundamental freedom are indivisible and interdependent and equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of both, civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights.